Greenhouse vegetable planting technology is a relatively common technology, it has better heat preservation performance, and is deeply loved by people. Below I will share with you the points that need attention in greenhouse vegetable planting, let's take a look!
Precautions for greenhouse vegetable cultivation
Fertilizer damage is an important reason for restricting vegetables in greenhouses, mainly due to the damage of salt accumulation. The reason is that the use of a large amount of chemical fertilizers leads to changes in the nature of the soil and restricts the growth of vegetables. When there are related problems after fertilizer damage, it affects the development of greenhouse vegetable planting technology at the roots of greenhouse vegetables, reduces the absorption capacity of water and fertilizer, lacks nutrients and dies, and the salinization of the soil is too high, causing vegetable leaves to wither and aging soil. The poisonous gas affects the growth of vegetables.
The potential of phytotoxicity is great, sometimes the symptoms are obvious, and sometimes they are invisible and difficult to find. The cause of phytotoxicity, no matter what kind of vegetable species is using the same herbicide, the time of overuse of pesticides is not accurate, the use of fake and inferior pesticides or expired pesticides. These factors deform vegetables and even die.
Drought is the most important factor affecting the growth of vegetables in greenhouses. The cause of premature damage is insufficient water supply and poor water quality and incomplete planting facilities. Drought not only delays the best time for vegetable planting and restricts the growth rate, but also brings certain difficulties to fertilization and pesticide application.
Precautions for irrigation of greenhouse vegetable cultivation In winter, irrigation of greenhouse vegetables should be arranged on sunny days, and it is best to have several consecutive sunny days after irrigation. The morning should be chosen during the day. This is not only because the difference between the water temperature and the ground temperature is small, the ground temperature is easy to recover, but also there is sufficient time for dehumidification. It is generally not suitable to choose noon, so as not to affect the physiological function of root system when watering at high temperature. It is not advisable to irrigate in the evening and snowy days to avoid excessive humidity in the shed, which may cause vegetable diseases.
When the vegetable water in the greenhouse is seriously insufficient, when the water of Artemisia wilt and the leaves are too much, the root system will suffocate and rot due to the lack of oxygen in the soil, and some of the stems and leaves above the ground will turn yellow or even die. In winter, the greenhouse irrigation temperature is low, the air volume is small, and the water consumption is low. At this time, the humidity changes greatly after watering, and the duration is long, so small water and frequent irrigation are required. When the temperature in the shed is relatively low, the amount of watering should be small, the interval should be long, and flooding with flooding should be avoided to prevent low temperature and high humidity from causing vegetable retting.
In winter, the greenhouse is used for direct irrigation with underground well water. If cold surface water is used for irrigation, the water temperature should not be lower than 2C-3℃. Normally, the water temperature should be as close as possible to the ground temperature at that time. In order to make the water temperature as close to the room temperature as possible, the water delivery equipment can be extended in the greenhouse before watering.
Greenhouse vegetable irrigation should choose micro-water irrigation, especially in winter, because the use of micro-irrigation in greenhouses has a significant effect on improving the growth environment of crops, and has a positive effect on the balance and coordination of water, fertilizer, gas, and heat required for crop growth. The use of micro-irrigation in the early and mid-term is conducive to promoting roots and seedlings, controlling the air humidity in the shed, and reducing the occurrence of pests and diseases. Micro-irrigation can also effectively control water volume, reduce deep leakage water volume and fertilizer loss, improve soil structure and performance, promote crop growth and improve vegetable quality.
On the day of irrigation, in order to restore the ground temperature as soon as possible, the greenhouse is generally closed to increase the temperature quickly and use it to promote the ground temperature. After the ground temperature rises, for plants that like to have dry air, let the wind and moisture be released in time to reduce the temperature to a suitable range. Watering at the seedling stage emphasizes cultivating for increasing temperature and preserving harvest. After the seedlings grow up, they are generally no longer cultivated to prevent damage to the roots.
Misunderstanding of vegetable cultivation in greenhouses Misunderstanding 1: more fertilizer, more output.
Many vegetable farmers apply a lot of fertilizer in the greenhouse vegetable field in order to produce more. In fact, excessive fertilization of vegetables can easily cause fertilizer damage. Solution: One is to plant the greenhouse three years later, control the chicken and cow manure within 2500 kg each, and reduce the chemical fertilizer by about 50%. The second is to pay attention to the application of cow manure, humic acid fertilizer and EM bacterial fertilizer to the plots with large total salt concentration to increase the soil carbon to ammonia ratio, loosen the soil and relieve the salt and reduce the fertilizer damage. The third is to supplement boron, zinc, and magnesium fertilizers, balance soil nutrients, and create conditions for lowering input and striving for sustained high yields.
Misunderstanding 2: There are many seedlings and high yield.
Many vegetable farmers tend to stay more when they keep seedlings, believing that more seedlings can produce high yields. In fact, due to the low temperature in winter, weak light, poor photosynthesis, and low carbohydrate synthesis, only a reasonable density can produce high yields. Solution: First, it is better to plant osmanthus osmanthus reasonably and sparsely. Second, in order to make full use of space, the management methods of dense planting in the early stage, thinning of the plants in the middle and thinning of the branches in the later period can be adopted, and the leaves and branches are not crowded to improve the total yield and total benefits.
Misunderstanding 3: The temperature is high and it grows fast.
In fact, vegetables have an upper limit on temperature, generally 25~32℃. Too high temperature will cause great respiration and inhalation, disorder of body operation and physiological activities, lengthening of plants, imbalance of nutrition and reproductive growth, and yield will decrease instead. Solution: One is to set up two air vents in the greenhouse to cool down in time. The second is to manage according to the temperature required during the growth period of various vegetables and the appropriate temperature requirements during the growth period of each organ to prevent high temperature from growing vines and not growing fruits.
Misunderstanding 4: The plant is growing and growing well.
Most people think that vines and vines are good crops. In fact, there are many leaves and roots, and the roots must be shallow. The nutrient is insufficient and the yield is low. Excessive vegetative growth will inevitably affect the reproductive growth, and the yield will decrease instead. Solution: First, grasp the root depth of weak plants in the seedling stage, control water and control plants and promote roots, so that the underground absorption of photosynthesis accounts for about 60%, and the underground and above-ground absorption in the middle and late stages each account for 50%. The second is the consumption of nutrients in the early stage. The amount accounts for 60%, and the reproductive growth accounts for 40%; the mid-term each accounts for 50%, the late reproductive growth accounts for 60% ~ 70%, and the vegetative growth only accounts for 30% ~ 40%, which means that there is a certain assimilation leaf area in the early stage, and the late control and promotion Fruit, increase yield.
Misunderstanding 5: Use drugs frequently and cause fewer diseases.
Many vegetable coats are given the medicine every 2-3 days in the middle and late stages of vegetable growth. It is believed that regular medicine can prevent the disease from spreading. Solution: One is to identify the disease and spray the medicine to the symptoms. It is best to use copper and zinc agents, which can kill bacteria, enhance the ability of plants to resist the invasion of pathogens, and promote crop growth. The second is to improve the ecological environment, with luxuriant branches and poor ventilation, and the effect of spraying medicine every day is not necessarily good. The leaves should be thinned to cool down. The third is to prevent dead seedlings caused by soil-borne bacteria during the seedling stage. If the source of the disease is ignored, the seedling stage will be infected, and the later stage will occur. The bacteria have invaded the plant body, and the effect of frequent spraying will not be good.
Misunderstanding 6: There are more crops and more income.
Many people believe that investing in the construction of greenhouses cannot let the land be idle, so the secondary stubble is followed by the main stubble, the main stubble is interposed with the secondary stubble, and the stubble is planted many times. The result is often inferior and low-efficiency. Solution: One is to overwinter a large crop, planting one a year is better, spring and autumn crops to two a year as appropriate. Eggplant, pepper, tomato and cucumber old plants can be regenerated for one crop, and when the price is low, the seedlings can be planted and dried. The second is to leave for a period of time in summer every year for deep turning, raining and pressing salt, exposure to the sun to sterilize, killing insects in the stuffy shed, and curing the soil.